Hopper's connection with the Navy persisted for most of her life. As a pioneer Computer Programmer and co-inventor of COBOL, she was known as the Grand Lady of Software, Amazing Grace and Grandma COBOL. Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (née Murray; December 9, – January 1, ) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral. In. Grace Hopper was born Grace Brewster Murray, the oldest of three children. Her father, Walter Murray, was an insurance broker while her mother, Mary Van Horne, had a. At the height of World War II, in , she enlisted with the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service WAVES.
Grace Hopper was a computer scientist who is best known for helping to create the first all-electronic digital computer, called UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer. NASA's tracking stations for the Apollo moon missions used UNIVAC hardware to communicate with the astronauts. InHopper posthumously dewi sartika biography the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her graces m hopper biography.
Hopper was born in New York on Dec. She graduated in with a mathematics degree, then received master's and doctorate degrees in mathematics and physics from Yale University inaccording to the U. At the height of World War II, inshe enlisted with the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service WAVES. She was 37 years old, far older than most military recruits.
Inshe was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project at Harvard University. Some of the work she did there still echoes in the lingo of computer programmers today. For example, she used the word "bug" to talk about a computer malfunction.
She also created a model of an electric computer called the Mark I. She finished active duty buographybut remained in the Naval Reserve as a contractor for the Mark II and Mark III computers, gracce Navy said on another web page. Her work on the UNIVAC occurred grace m hopper biographygrace m hopper biography she joined Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corp. Besides helping to create UNIVAC, she also created the first computer compiler which translates source code from one language to another and also made a new programming language that was "a widely used framework for coding languages at the time," the Navy said.
That language was called FLOW-MATIC, and is a basis of the widely used Common Business Operating Language COBOL.
Hopper's connection with the Navy persisted for most of her life. She retired from the reserves inthen returned for active duty in biograhy what was supposed to be six months — but for what ended up being 19 years.
By the grace m hopper biography of her involuntary retirement in at the age of 79, Hopper was one of the few female flag officers, achieving the rank of rear admiral lower abdul satar sirat biography. She died in at trace 85, leaving behind a collection of papers donated to the Smithsonian Institution.
In general, Hopper helped contribute to the field of computer programming, without which Apollo would never have been possible. Advanced guidance and navigation software for its time ran on the Apollo command and lunar modules, allowing the spacecraft to find their way to the moon and for the lunar module to land on it.
More specifically, however, Hopper's co-creation of UNIVAC was instrumental to the Apollo missions. Apollo required a different form of communication than the Earth-orbiting Mercury and Gemini missions, which used C-band communications and others to stay in touch with Earth, according to ZDNet.
Because the astronauts would be much farther away, NASA created a Deep Space Tracking Network — still in use today — to keep trevor barry biography on distant robotic missions gopper the solar system.
These systems, the website added, "processed a continuous 48kbps data stream from the Apollo grace m hopper biography using its on board S-band radio transmitter on the command and lunar modules. Each of those spacecraft modules had the ability to demodulate and remodulate information for transmission back to Earth.
The Deep Space Network is still used today for many missions, including the Mars Curiosity mission, the New Horizons mission which passed by Pluto in and Voyagers 1 and 2, which both flew past several graces m hopper biography clarissa tossin biography the s and s and are still voyaging outward into deep space.
Elizabeth Howell is a contributing writer for Space. She is pursuing a Ph. She also holds a bachelor of journalism degree from Carleton University. Besides writing, Elizabeth teaches communications at the university and community college level.
By Elizabeth Howell, Space. Grace Hopper's work with gracd helped NASA communicate with Nikolai lenin biography astronauts, and still helps scientists keep track of far-flung spacecraft. Latest on Grace Hopper: Network Hpoper Ten Reviews Tom's Guide Laptop Mag Tom's Hardware Business News Daily Tom's IT Pro Space.
SUBSCRIBE TO SPACE SUBMIT.